360km steel tubes used to create facade for Snohetta-designed King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture

360km steel tubes used to create facade for Snohetta-designed King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture

Aramco, Facade design, King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture, Saudi Arabia, Seele, Snohetta

Saudi Arabia’s King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture (KACWC), which has been designed by Norwegian architecture firm Snohetta, has been fitted with a façade comprising 360km of steel tubes.

KACWC has been established in Dhahran by Saudi Aramco to promote the kingdom’s knowledge economy, in line with the country’s Vision 2030 vision.


Details of the project’s façade have now been revealed by Seele, a German firm specialised in the design and construction of façades and building envelopes made from glass, steel, aluminium, membranes, and other materials.

Seele said the project required its team to not only develop “a solution for the construction” operations, “but also the software for the self-learning machines” that were used for each steel element within the façade.

According to the architects, KACWC’s five buildings have been designed to “shine in the sunlight like bright pebbles”.

To achieve the vision, Seele created a building envelope as a free-form surface, using thousands of stainless steel tubes bent in three dimensions, to cover a total area of 30,260m2.

The tallest of the three-dimensional, free-form shapes rises 90m, and all the tubes are fixed to a supporting structure made from a weatherproof, unitised building envelope clad with sheet metal joined by standing seams.

The tubes are attached to pins that compensate for the different movements of the building envelope and the tubes.

Approximately 70,000 stainless steel tubes have been used for the project, which, laid end to end, would total 360km.

The reference point for the geometry, design, production, dimensional checks, and erection of each tube was its virtual centre-line. The distance between adjacent, double-curvature tubes is exactly 10mm.

Each tube had to be marked and bent corresponding to its subsequent position on the structure, and for the sunshades around the windows, some had to be crimped as well.

Visual ‘transitions’ were necessary where the round tube took on the so-called ‘squashed’ look, and Seele said its engineers’ expertise was required to achieve “this geometrically challenging building envelope”.

A façade using stainless steel tubes across all floors had never been built before, requiring Seele to implement numerous tests for the project, as well as special programming for the bending and measuring of the tubes, on free-form bending machines.

Visit Construction Week Online to learn more about the testing and installation of the facade. 

Snohetta has also recently designed the Muttrah Fish Market in Oman which was inspired by the local topography.


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